Guestess, I think that the "final six" are a set of numbers that create a longitude and that the four before are a set of numbers that create a latitude. Historically latitude seems to be quoted first followed by the longitude so the final six and the four before make sense within that convention. Latitude is calculated as a simple angle in degrees from the equator, the North Star is usually used as a fixed point to measure from. The measurement forms a right angled triangle. The longitude of a point is calculated by knowing accurately the time at a fixed starting point. By noting what time a fixed daily astronomical event happens you can calculate how far around the earth you have travel, again measured in degrees.
Time, place, north star, right angled triangles, lines, angles, navigation all of these concepts fit very neatly with the clues.